Ways of brewing coffee

Ways of brewing coffee

In the world there are a lot of ways of brewing coffee. And each way affects the taste and aroma of the final product, as well as the formulation of the further use of the drink. Many methods of brewing coffee, almost without changing, reached the modern consumer of this drink, but many new, simpler and more sophisticated devices were invented by man in recent years. And each method has its own nuances and peculiarities of cooking, which gives coffee such a unique taste.

Each way of brewing coffee has its own history of occurrence. And the methods themselves often have many different names that depend on the regional origin and nationality of the people who first discovered this or that method of preparation.

Today there is a number of basic ways of brewing coffee, the most common both in everyday life and at work (in coffee shops). In this article, we will tell you which methods of making coffee are most popular in Europe, America and, of course, in Belarus.

It is believed that the culture of coffee takes its roots in Ethiopia. According to legends and history, this part of the "black" continent was the birthplace of Arabica coffee and, most likely, the place where the first method of brewing a black drink was developed. Over time, various ways of cooking turned into a real coffee ceremony, which was called buna. This ceremony is performed by the hostess of the house or the youngest woman in the family. The coffee ceremony usually took place three times a day: in the morning, at noon and in the evening. It is an integral part of Ethiopian society and culture. The fact that it is so widespread, confirms how deep the cult of coffee rooted in this people. Buna can last for more than an hour. It almost always includes the actions performed in the exact order, because the information is transmitted from one generation to another. During this important event, the woman wears qemis Habesha, a traditional white cotton dress with bright decorative motifs. For this ceremony of making coffee, materials and ancient tools are used which have remained practically unchanged: a brazier, a skillet (for frying grains), a wooden mortar with a pestle, incense, bowls, a simple table with numerous small coffee pots and a jebena.


Ethiopian proverb gives us an indication of how important coffee is for this people: «Buna NAW Dabo», which means "Coffee is our bread." Jebena - is a typical black terracotta pot used in Ethiopia to make coffee. It has a spherical base and a long neck, covered with a conical jute plug. It has a semicircular handle, a small spout decorated with decorative cuts. Usually, when coffee boils, it is poured through a neck into another vessel to cool, and then again placed in a jaben. To pour coffee from the jibe, use a filter made of horsehair or other material that is placed in the spout of the coffee pot to prevent particles of ground coffee from getting into the finished beverage. In Ethiopia, coffee is poured into small ceramic cups, which are called sini. A nice snack for coffee is dabo kolo, a delicacy made from flour, sugar and water. It is cut into small pieces and is fried or baked.

filtered, drip or American coffee

The most popular way of making coffee all over the world, especially in the US and Germany, is filtered coffee. Also, this coffee is called "drip" or "American". In 1908, Mellite Benz invented a paper filter, and the era of drip coffee began. This method of brewing is based on the principle of slow percolation of hot water through a layer of ground coffee located on a paper filter. When water seeps through the coffee grounds, soluble in water dissolves and enters the drink. The appropriate pore size in the filter prevents the ingress of solids and allows full recovery of all aroma components in the coffee. If you cook coffee properly, then you get a clear cup of coffee with a light body, a delicate taste and aroma.

manual pour-over, coffee dripper

Currently, there are many varieties of cooking filtered coffee. This can be a classic manual pour-over, which is a plastic or a porcelain funnel placed on a glass container with the conical filter paper inserted in it. Coffee dripper is also popular, in which a hole for filtering the beverage is blocked with filter paper, so that hot water can continue extracting aromatics from the coffee and coffee grounds remain on the filter paper.

In modern drip coffee machines, the water supply can be automated. So electric coffee makers on the market are supplied with two main types of filters: a cone and a basket. Filters are made from a wide range of materials. In addition to general disposable paper models, bleached or natural brown paper is used, there are also filters made of bamboo fiber or reusable fabric. Permanent removable filters can be made of stainless steel, titanium mesh or even be gilded. "Gold-plated" filters allow most of the microparticles and aromatic compounds to go to coffee.

French press, piston coffee pot

The second most common, but not the quality of the produced beverage is a French-press. Since 1852, the system of press filter, known as the Melior, is widely used around the world under the name "French Press" or "piston coffee pot". The French press is also used for tea, is distributed not only in France (where it was most famous), it is also highly valued throughout Northern Europe and North America. For this method of brewing coffee, a special metal filter is used to separate and isolate the ground coffee from the beverage. The elegant, practical and easy-to-use French press consists of three main parts: the body, which includes a handle, a glass vessel and a lid with an integrated piston mechanism. Coffee, using Melior method needs a kettle, mixer and coffee. First of all, the need to boil water in a kettle, then leave it for 1-2 minutes until the water cools down to an ideal temperature 92-96°C (197-205°F) . Coffee for French press is required medium roast and medium-coarse grind. Large milling, prevents blockage of the filter. After placing the coffee in the bottom of the glass cylinder, the water is poured onto the ground coffee in a circular motion so that the water flow reaches each coffee particle. Then the filter is pushed down exactly enough so that thick foam forms under pressure on the liquid. To get stable extraction of aromatic components, after 30-60 seconds, the contents is mixed with a long stirrer (made of wood not to damage the glass). In about 3 minutes soaking, you need to gently and gently lower the piston (slow press takes 15-30 seconds). The piston should not be lowered to the bottom stop, so that the ground particles do not get into the drink, but leave some liquid in the coffee grounds. At this point the drink is ready for use. If you are not going to drink it right away, it needs to be poured into another vessel. Despite the fact that the coffee grounds are separated by a filter, the drink will still be in contact with the coffee, and will become very strong and bitter. With this method, grinding can be changed, brewing time can be increased or decreased, the amount of water or coffee can vary, the drink can be diluted with additional water to satisfy personal tastes.

Moka or geyser coffee machine

A widespread coffee pot in Italy is Moka or a "geyser coffee machine". Simple and brilliant, it was invented by Alfonso Bialetti in 1933 and quickly became an icon of Italian design in the world. It consists of 3 parts: an octagonal base for water, a small funnel-shaped filter that contains ground coffee, and the upper part where the ready-made drink is located. When making coffee using this method, the pressure created by the steam is used, which causes the boiling water to pass through the coffee layer and settle at the top of the coffee pot. The result is a bright drink, medium density with an intense, rich flavor. Since the early 1900’s, the Italian industry has created many models not only to meet the needs of the consumer, but also to make these models pleasing to the eye.

The Turk, Greek coffee

The Turks met coffee more than four and a half centuries ago. Very soon after the bringing Arabica grains by the ruler of Yemen to Istanbul (Ottoman capital), the city was filled with coffee. Just in a hundred years, first Venice, then London and Paris met with coffee through the Ottoman Empire, and coffee acquired the epithet "Turkish". In some Western countries, Turkish coffee is also known as "Greek coffee", because the Greeks brought coffee to these countries. Soon after coffee was imported into the Ottoman Empire in 1543, it became so popular that coffee houses and shops specializing in roasting coffee began to open quickly. Coffee roasting is called tahmis, and nowadays there is a street called Tahmis, in the Eminenu district of Istanbul, where the Egyptian spice bazaar is located. The Turkish way of brewing coffee has survived to this day. For him, the Ibrik (Turk, Jezwa) is a small pot made of brass or tinned copper, which is still made by hand from Bosnia to Egypt. It has a wide base in comparison with the top (a form that simplifies filling it with water). This pot has a long handle, originally intended for making coffee on hot desert sand or on coals. According to the classical procedure, water is first boiled, then sugar and coffee are added- lightly fried and extremely fine grind and mix. Then the Ibrik is returned to the fire until the contents begins to foam. Then it is briefly removed from the fire, the contents is mixed and the foam falls. This procedure is repeated twice, and with each time the foam rises faster. Then you need to remove the Ibrik from the fire, leave it for a while, so that the particles of ground coffee have time to settle on the bottom. And at the final stage, the contents are poured into prepared cups. Foam can be removed from coffee with a regular spoon or evenly spread over the cups. The term "Turkish coffee" is actually used to refer to several methods that differ in terms of time and the addition of water, as well as sugar and spices. If done correctly, the cup will contain a thick aromatic coffee with a slight pleasant smell. Tactile sensation is transmitted from suspended particles of coffee grounds, which is quite unusual. The method of coffee in Turkish is common not only in the Middle East, but also in the regions of North Africa, the Caucasus and the Balkan Peninsula. Turkish coffee is drank with lukum, also called "Turkish sweets", one of the oldest confectionery products in the world, with the taste and aroma of roses, lemon, mint, pistachios, almonds, cinnamon or other spices.


More and more often in coffee shops, and at home all over the world you can find a stylish and very practical coffeepot called Café Solo. Cafe Solo was launched in 1997, but being a descendant of 60-year-old Danish company Eva Solo it combines youth innovation with years of experience. Café Solo is one of those devices, which looks stylish and prepares good coffee. It has a built-in filter and a glass chamber where hot water seeps through the ground coffee. The device has an external coating of neoprene for insulation and heat-resistant glass. To prepare an excellent coffee, you need to complete 5 steps:

  1. 1) put coarsely ground coffee;
  2. 2) pour boiling water;
  3. 3) stir for 10 seconds;
  4. 4) leave for 4 minutes;
  5. 5) the coffee is ready!

A little-known, but no less eye-catching cold (Cold brew method) way of making coffee.

Cold brew method way of making coffee

The advantage of this method is the production of strong coffee with intense aroma without using electricity or a heat source. It uses a combination of two basic elements: cold water and time. The method is simple. Just mix a large amount of coarse coffee in a liter of cold water, and let it persist for twelve hours at room temperature. Then you need to filter out the coffee grounds. The result is a concentrated coffee solution that can be kept for several days in the refrigerator to be later diluted to taste with hot water: one piece of coffee into three parts of water or milk. This procedure partially extracts the coffee components, and the final drink turns out to be very light and soft. The loss of aromatic oils is almost zero with this method of brewing, so that the taste of the drink turns out to be smooth, fresh and deep, like that of dark chocolate.


Recently such a method of brewing as aeropress is gaining popularity (Aeropress). In the United States, the aeropress was invented only seven years ago. A popular press system is also common in the Far East and South America. Aeropress is a conceptually new, fully plastic device designed to prepare for soaking coffee. Aeropress produces coffee of high concentration, which can then be bred to taste. In a cup it looks like filtered coffee, but has better taste. This device consists of a hollow cylinder, piston and filter. The basic idea when creating the device was a syringe, with a perforated plastic cover with a disposable paper filter added to it. Hot water (about 90°C, or 194°F) is mixed with the coffee for ten seconds to create a "pre-drink", and then the mixture is forced through a thick filter paper (about 20 seconds), directly into a cup, tapping on the piston of the device. The taste of the final drink turns out to be smooth and almost sweet. Fine grinding, not too hot water and quick filtration give us a portion of soft, not too sour, with bright notes and sweetness of coffee.


Espresso. The term is used to define the shots of the prepared coffee upon request. When under high-pressure water passes through finely ground roasted coffee beans, we get not only a black drink that has been loved since ancient times, but also a concentrated body, an intense aroma. The feelings given by espresso  do not finish with the taste, they last for some time. There are many types of espresso coffee machines: super-automatic, electronic, automatic and semi-automatic conventional machines; Working with coffee in pods or capsules; for professional or home use.

Прессо (Presso)

An interesting representative of home non-electric espresso machines is Presso. This portable small easy-to-use device does not need electricity. The case of this device is made of polished aluminum, which can be reused. And individual parts that withstand pressure are made of stainless steel. External parts are covered with chrome. This device with manual control produces the pressure necessary to make quality coffee at home. Presso Coffee is very nicely designed and decorates any interior. All you need to do to create the perfect espresso is just fill the steel filter with coffee, fix it with a special holder and pour pre-cooked hot water into the cylinder of heat-resistant plastic (ideal temperature   - 90 ° C, if you pour boiling water, we get bitter drink). Do not forget to warm espresso cups with water from the kettle. Next, you need to raise the handle of the lever to the upper position and lower it down. This action will force water to pass through coffee under high pressure. The whole process takes seconds. 6 simple steps for making excellent coffee:

  1. 1) put the ground coffee in the filter with a spoon and stamp;
  2. 2) fix the filter;
  3. 3) pour only boiled water;
  4. 4) lift the handles to the upper position;
  5. 5) strongly push them, move them to the lower position and hold them;
  6. 6) to receive a portion of fine espresso - drink and enjoy.
coffee espresso machines

A significant event in the history of coffee was the invention of portable espresso machines. A prominent representative of this type of device is Bacchi espresso. To prepare espresso using Bacchi Espresso you just need to put the water in a special compartment, add the right amount of coffee and install the device on a heat source. It is the only patented machine for producing the ideal espresso, which also has small dimensions. This model was highly appreciated by experts. This is due to the fact that a portion of the espresso obtained by using this device is almost identical to the portions of the Italian espresso with rich aroma and taste.

чалды (pods) и капсулы (capsules)

Packaging of single doses of ground coffee pods and the capsules and the establishment of appropriate capsular coffee machines became a revolution in the coffee industry. An important advantage of pods: they give the opportunity to feel the wonderful taste of the Italian espresso abroad. There are many types of pods. Most consist of one pre-packed dose (about 7 g) of ground coffee compressed and vacuum packed between two layers of filter paper (grammage of paper may vary from 20 to 27 g / m2, which affects the water seepage), the diameter varies from 38 to 44 mm and may be symmetrical or asymmetrical. The absence of metal makes pods truly "environmentally clean", since they are biodegradable. In addition, they are also convenient because they are simple, clean and efficient: simply insert the capsule in the machine, click and get excellent coffee. Pods can be divided into two categories: the "compact pods, capsules", used for the preparation of espresso coffee, and "soft pods", or "pads" that are produced for the European traditional filtered or drip coffee (in Italy they are called "long coffee").

Coffee capsules. The system of "pre-dosed" one-portion coffee capsules meets the necessary requirements for success in the market, providing specific benefits to the consumer: efficient service, high quality and reliability. The main advantage of the coffee capsules is that the quality of the final product is laid down at the production and the human factor is minimized. Modern technology does not stand still. The shape and raw material for capsules also changes. It is clearly seen on the example of Lavazza capsules. They have a wide range of capsules:

  • Second generation capsules , Point capsule, each contains 6 g of compacted ground coffee. After cooking, the capsule does not change its shape. Capsule shell itself is made of plastic.
  • Third generation capsules , Lavazza blue capsules, contain 8-9 grams of ground coffee and after preparation the capsule’s shape is lost and it is unusable for further use.

Coffee inside the capsule is in a free state. In addition, these devices are easy to use, the consumer can also find the same quality products only, provided that the expert is the barista and the operator. In fact, using parameters such as the pressure in the coffee machine and the water temperature, grind, the amount of coffee and how coffee is compressed in the package led to such a "system product." It creates the best conditions for coffee, and thus ensuring the quality of the final product which meets consumer demands. Two types of systems are presented on the market: open and closed. 

  • Open systems are systems of different brands and different types of single serve units when several machines can use a set of standard capsules. This means that consumers can choose a machine they like and coffee they prefer. Besides, new manufactures produce their goods relevant to standards.
  • Closed system, better called "proprietary system". Machines and capsules are protected by the patent. In this case, a particular machine can only use a certain type of capsules and, after the consumer buys the product of this brand, they will be forced to consume their products. Today, a single supply of coffee is one of the fastest growing services and provides a wide range of products. Since this is a very segmented market, an important factor of success for all operators is to offer consumers such an integrated system, which is a provision of a capsule machine with capsules.

In this article we learnt some ways of brewing coffee. Currently, a three-hour training course on "Methods of brewing" is under development in which you can get not only theoretical knowledge about a particular method of making coffee, but also acquire practical skills by learning cooking techniques. You can taste coffee made by different methods and choose your favorite method of preparation. After all, every method of brewing coffee brings its own unique flavor and the same coffee prepared by different methods, will have its exceptional taste and aroma. In addition to these, there are other methods of preparing coffee by using:

  • Dallah;
  • Mexican Coffee Café de Olla;
  • Neapolitan coffee (Flip-Drip);
  • Vacuum;
  • Balancing siphon;
  • Karlsbad;
  • Percolator;
  • Kaapi;
  • Phin;
  • Chemex;
  • Chorreador.

At our training you can get information on these brewing methods. We also appreciate your emails with your favorite coffee brewing methods.